Russia's aggression against Ukraine was the first major military conflict accompanied by a large-scale cyber war. However, Russia's massive cyber attacks proved ineffective.
According to the Microsoft experts who published a report analyzing the developments on the cyber front, the most important factor in successfully countering these attacks was Ukraine's effort to relocate its information infrastructure to Europe and the formation of a "coalition of countries, companies and NGOs" that helped counter the attacks. Thus, serious damage to critical infrastructure was avoided.
The authors of another study, Professors at the Odessa Law Academy, also believe that Ukraine managed to counter Russian attacks due to its cooperation with the U.S. in the cyber sphere and the network principle of cyber defense, a vivid example of which was the setup of the Ukrainian IT-Army.